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2015 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Water, Water

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Join host and moderator Neil deGrasse Tyson and his panel of experts for a lively discussion about the past, present, and future of water on Earth. Earth is the only place in our solar system with liquid water on its surface. Even though water makes up only 0.03 percent of the Earth’s total mass, it covers 70 percent of the planet’s surface. Where did this water come from? Why is it mostly in liquid form? How much of it is drinkable and how vulnerable is this valuable resource? Will we ever run out? Will wars of the future be fought over access to it? Will future generations harness water from space? Is water essential to all life in the universe—or just to life on Earth? #IsaacAsimov #debates #Earth #water #panelists #naturalresources 2015 Asimov Panelists include: -Heidi Hammel, Planetary Astronomer,Executive Vice President of the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy -Tess Russo,Hydrologist,Assistant Professor in the Department of Geosciences at Pennsylvania State University  -Ellen Stofan, Planetary Geologist, Chief Scientist of NASA -Kathryn Sullivan, Geologist, Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Administrator -Charles Wald, General, U.S. Air Force, Retired; Director and Senior Advisor to the aerospace and defense industry for Deloitte LP The late Dr. Isaac Asimov, one of the most prolific and influential authors of our time, was a dear friend and supporter of the American Museum of Natural History.  In his memory, the Hayden Planetarium is honored to host the annual Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate — generously endowed by relatives, friends, and admirers of Isaac Asimov and his work — bringing the finest minds in the world to the Museum each year to debate pressing questions on the frontier of scientific discovery.  Proceeds from ticket sales of the Isaac Asimov Memorial Debates benefit the scientific and educational programs of the Hayden Planetarium. 2017 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: De-Extinction https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_LnAtMeSVeY&index=1&list=PLrfcruGtplwGKzxDI_Ne06NlpOKt-yonZ 2016 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Is the Universe a Simulation? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wgSZA3NPpBs&index=2&t=25s&list=PLrfcruGtplwGKzxDI_Ne06NlpOKt-yonZ 2015 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Water, Water https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FSF79uS3t04&index=3&t=25s&list=PLrfcruGtplwGKzxDI_Ne06NlpOKt-yonZ 2014 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Selling Space https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GbmFeEIKBFI&index=4&t=25s&list=PLrfcruGtplwGKzxDI_Ne06NlpOKt-yonZ 2013 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: The Existence of Nothing https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1OLz6uUuMp8&index=5&t=25s&list=PLrfcruGtplwGKzxDI_Ne06NlpOKt-yonZ 2012 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: Faster Than the Speed of Light https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5qlLW60wOjo&list=PLrfcruGtplwGKzxDI_Ne06NlpOKt-yonZ&index=6 2011 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: The Theory of Everything https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eb8_3BUHcuw&list=PLrfcruGtplwGKzxDI_Ne06NlpOKt-yonZ&index=7 Rose Center Anniversary Isaac Asimov Debate: Is Earth Unique? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Ji_GdAk9vU&index=8&list=PLrfcruGtplwGKzxDI_Ne06NlpOKt-yonZ&t=25s *** Subscribe to our channel: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=AMNHorg Check out our full video catalog: http://www.youtube.com/user/AMNHorg Facebook: http://fb.com/naturalhistory Twitter: http://twitter.com/amnh Tumblr: http://amnhnyc.tumblr.com/ Instagram: http://instagram.com/amnh This video and all media incorporated herein (including text, images, and audio) are the property of the American Museum of Natural History or its licensors, all rights reserved. The Museum has made this video available for your personal, educational use. You may not use this video, or any part of it, for commercial purposes, nor may you reproduce, distribute, publish, prepare derivative works from, or publicly display it without the prior written consent of the Museum. © American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY
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Text Comments (310)
Shane Martin (3 months ago)
I find it amazing that nobody talks about the real driver of this water crisis that goes beyond even climate change. There are too many people. If we had a significantly smaller world population, our activities would be causing much less harm to the environment and our quality of life would be better.
George Crannell (5 months ago)
If you're gonna have a mission to "BAG" the asteroid, you can have the "GLAD" garbage bag company to pay for it.
b m (6 months ago)
Lake Ontario is dry.....the Americans took it.
b m (6 months ago)
Subs make O2 and water so why not.
wessam sharaf (6 months ago)
they are fucking actors, speaks about a lot of bull shit science brain washing you. you can`t see it?did you see the presentation they are super super expert specialized in bull shit.
Ultraviolent Light (6 months ago)
Best of the Asimov debates on Youtube, imo!
Mir (7 months ago)
28:54. Kathryn Sullivan says: it needs a lot of energy to bring purified water to people. c says : or sunlight . Exactly this represent a "commercial" scientist argue with "scientist". Please no offense for Mrs.Sullivan. P.s. i am totally on point of view for sunlight. Sun produce so much light that can be accumulated as energy ,this branch of science and technology is advancing ,it is just lacks investment :(
Battery Exhausted (8 months ago)
*Google* *VEGAN* *WATER* *SAVING* *FACTS*
Battery Exhausted (8 months ago)
Surprised no-one mentioned #veganism here. If we didn't give 90% of that water to 'agriculture' (TO FEED ANIMALS WE LATER KILL AND EAT) we could save loads of water, help save the planet etc. #GOVEGAN
Dennis Wilson (2 months ago)
https://qz.com/749443/being-vegan-isnt-as-environmentally-friendly-as-you-think/
ROBERTO TAVERAS (8 months ago)
can we please have a stephen hawking semi-annual memorial debates!!! pretty please!!!
julian to (9 months ago)
use global warming heat to desalinate sea water.. Don't ask me how, that's you guy's job
mark Tanner (10 months ago)
1:35:00 The last panelist was so mad by Neil interrupting her!
LenGarden (11 months ago)
I really appreciate Neil's strict attention to language in order to keep pre-suppositions out of the descriptive language of science.
Fredrik Johansson (1 year ago)
The irony here is that a person can actually get arrested for collecting rainwater in several states in the US. Yea America, you lead the way :-D
Kung Fu (1 year ago)
Their understanding is wrong. Research the flat earth.
Nicholas Powers (1 year ago)
Earthship technology would help make a dent in this problem
Just Deadpool (2 months ago)
Nicholas Powers Earthship technology would be amazing for architecture firms to integrate in building new housing, facilities, and skyscrapers.
Regular Apistevist (1 year ago)
The most funniest and informative panel I’ve ever seen!
Joseph Appenzeller (1 year ago)
The sinking pole, why was it caused? Only part of the debate I found challenging. Not to mention the lack of commentary over water rights...
tinydog1234 (1 year ago)
I'm a little skeptical that "100 feet" of subsidence was visible on a telephone pole, considering that they're only about 40 feet long, and buried to a depth of about 6 feet.
qed qubit (1 year ago)
about Neil's question about parking a comet in orbit (@40min): a hexapod robot with a pipe through its body with a coil around the pipe, and a solar panel on it, would make a remote controllable 'plasma'(?) rocket , of it(exiting the evaporating gasses). So yeah,that be cool, as long as no blind physicist declares nearly vacuum to be completely absolutely vacuum , and therfore non-conductive.
Sharon Gallagher (1 year ago)
You mean the Governments around the world are conspiring with sellout "in name only" scientists to take control of the Air Water Food and reproductive rights of every human being on earth by creating the Deception of Global Warming ? Sorry you changed it to Climate change because Earth has begun its cooling cycle again.. how inconvienient for your cause... Useless Liberal Dominators.. You can not hide your face from God Almighty.
Gewdvibes (1 year ago)
Sharon Gallagher lol you are fuuuuucking stupid. Oh, wasn’t the world supposed to end this weekend?
mad cobra (1 year ago)
Waow they didnt talk about increasing population.
mad cobra (1 year ago)
i meant increasing. Inferior humans keep breeding like cockroaches... Human race is being filled to the teeth with inferior humans... What a fucking shame...
Gewdvibes (1 year ago)
mad kobra decreasing? Are you high?
EpochDeus (1 year ago)
39:39 why not just heat the material till the water evaporates out? (caution, may cause water explosion)
Hachi de Fibonacci (1 year ago)
Water prices will rise. Learn to conserve water. Nation wise a country must lower it's water consumption.
assaqwwq (1 year ago)
18:03 "green women" was that a star trek reference?
mad cobra (1 year ago)
no, he did an sjw joke.
azralandar (1 year ago)
The climate has changed forever... We should ofc focus to hold as long as possible as a speccies, including the envioment we can survive with. However, our main energy focus should be on creating space, where we can control the envioment.. Dont turn this into a religion, where we spent time and energi in something that wouldnt be a permanent solution for our futures.
Science And Tech (1 year ago)
WOW. Great panel. Neil is covering all of the major issues of our time with these wonderful Isaac Asimov Debates! It was a profound awakening as well, to the overall situation on the humanity, and really put it into the light, like what Neil said in Cosmos. On the last second of the last day of the cosmic year, humanity started using the scientific method, and went from Galileo gazing through a telescope, to putting humans on the moon. But how did we get this far without a basic water system figured out? Humanity didn't even get their water situation sorted out after all this time. All humans living on less than half a percent of all the drinkable water there is. It really is such a young species.
Bit Toonie (1 year ago)
Water isn't free... The infrastructure is paid through unethical taxation.. Reduce my taxes and I will gladly pay higher rates for my water.
mhfuXmonsta (1 year ago)
"By 2030 we plan to put humans on mars" "Asteroid scheduled to hit earth 2029" Which is more important?
Gewdvibes (1 year ago)
mhfuXmonsta it MIGHT hit earth with a 1 in a few million chance in 2036, it will NOT hit in 2029. It will pass by earth in 2029 and once it passes by we will be able to determine with extreme certainty whether or not it will hit earth and when and we will have 7 years to figure it out
Stanman121 (1 year ago)
I kept waiting for the General to tell Neil - "You're way out of line son"
SXXXLT (1 year ago)
getting thirsty.
michiganfree (1 year ago)
the silence after the kiwi question was awesome...one love for Mr. Tayson
RokRite Productions (1 year ago)
i love how there is a hole panel of greats up there but can't work out mic's . Gold. it goes to show everyone has their place and use and the way they handle it shows that there is no problems only solution's. They didn't miss a beat. I love this attitude.
Rabble Repository (1 year ago)
neoliberalism for water wtf!!! fire all these people
OREE AQENARI (1 year ago)
So, all problems of mankind could in fact be reduced to only ONE of them ... ENERGY DENSITY. We need therefore to put special attention to creating new ways of gaining large amounts of energy in the most efficient ways. Yet, if our reality is a kind of virtual (digital) simulation - what is the energy in such reality?
Suraj Nyalakonda (1 year ago)
How about actually pricing water properly? Simple economics here: if the supply of usable water goes down, then the price of usable water should go up, thus discouraging the use of usable water to meet lower preferences (such as watering the lawn). The general argues that a crisis is necessary for intergovernmental cooperation. But how about actually allowing water to be bought and sold in accordance with prices? If more and more decision-making authority is given to governments which then form intergovernmental cooperatives, then how can the people know that the decisions are being made in the best interest of the people, and not the best interest of the well connected? Given how little people trust their governments right now (and rightfully so, when you consider how poor of a job these governments have done), why would creating an even larger, an even more distant government be the solution?
M. Öckthem (2 years ago)
scientists too smart for our puny brains
TheBasket Kase (2 years ago)
Melting Antarctica = Fresh water. = Rising tides = Flood !!
TheBasket Kase (2 years ago)
WATER / FIRMAMENT /WATER
Patryk Karter (2 years ago)
Animal agriculture wastes loads of water, and I say "wastes" because science tell us we can live healthy without animal products. But because we love the taste of meat we don't care. #govegan
mark Tanner (10 months ago)
Bloody hell some people here are thick. Like yeah we're omnivores, but so what? Why should our ability to eat meat and dairy as well as plants mean that we should eat meat and dairy? Being vegan is unbelievably better for our health, the environment (esp. water) and the animals. They are far more important than a slightly better taste of a 5 minute meal.
Gewdvibes (1 year ago)
FW Poon you do know GMO’s aren’t bad right? It has little to no impact on human health or the environment. What’s even more hilarious is people buying “organic” products thinking they’re healthier and that they don’t use pesticides lol, when in fact MORE pesticides are used on “organic” products than GMO
Gewdvibes (1 year ago)
Patryk Karter fuck vegans. We are omnivores, always have and always will be. What’s a waste is how much meat and dairy we throw away each day. We shouldn’t stop eating meat and dairy products, we should be less wasteful
Burak Tosun (1 year ago)
can you tell this to people who suffers from lack of water in their region? i am not saying go vegan i am not also but you have to care if effects almost every living thing atleast i think that way
SXXXLT (1 year ago)
i eat mostly animal flesh because it tastes good. idc if it wastes water, we know how to remove salt from sea water so whats the big deal?
Gyöngyi Mendöly (2 years ago)
i think so we can not be sut like the people who beleive everything
Chris Connor (2 years ago)
this was a terrible discussion
FINAL_B (2 years ago)
Care to explain?
myassessment adres (2 years ago)
And now, solve the water problem please , please !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!and do not just talk talk talk talk talk laugh, stupiddddiidd laugh. But solvvve solve solvee solve solve solve it it !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
mikejonesnoreally (2 years ago)
Okaaaaaaaaaaaaaaay this may seem a very *obvious* question, and I mean no offense by it, but why don't *you*?  You seem to assume that there's no one working on it which this very panel kinda' shows that there *are*.  Are there enough people working on it?  That's a good question.  Better, certainly, than just barking orders as if it's other people's job to do *everyone's* mental heavy lifting.  Note please, that I didn't tell you to solve it, I just asked why you don't and yet order others to do it for you.  I note that you were not asking others to join your tireless mental efforts nor were you offering any ideas yourself, hence the obvious question.
Jay (2 years ago)
We needed Wal Thornhil here.
SuperMassiveBongHits (2 years ago)
29:48 the way Neil looked at the camera made me laugh
Powder (2 years ago)
i am very impressed about the 13 y o questioning..like mr tyson :D .. restores my faith in humanity ..a new generation growing up with the right knowledge to make it better
fourdeck33 (1 year ago)
*constitutional republic
Cheyenne Takitimu (2 years ago)
Yeah you're right. A democracy is only as good as the education of the people who get to vote
Jerry Elizondo (2 years ago)
Particularly good after we got Mr. Trump as POTUS. I hope the new generations are way smarter than we...
theanalog (2 years ago)
thank you for this debate
Kru lundy (2 years ago)
The lady at the beginning saying where water came from in the universe from ice must have one amazing time machine/spaceship to see this happen I think the true answe she should of said was no one has a clue and never will waffle debate
Draconorst (2 years ago)
Just remember a theory is the 'Best' explanation for the evidence given. The evidence in this case is the observations of what is around us, planets, the solar system etc. So what she is saying is that the current theory is.... This may change as new evidence is acquired.
Sam Lattin (2 years ago)
Global warming is happening and in turn the sea levels are rising, so does it not follow that desalination is the way forward, providing balance to the water cycle, preventing flooding and other natural disasters. The brine waste could be reduced further in to salt to be used in deicing agents. They talk about economic applications; this would be ecomomic for our planet global warming process and the companies involved in desalination. It time to learn to work with the changes to our planet instead of trying to stop them or worse yet prevent them.
Cylume (2 years ago)
They can put a man on the moon, but can't even get reliable microphones in any of these panel discussions.
Joseph Appenzeller (1 year ago)
Seems they do this ever episode they have. Some seem random and others planned. Whether they are covering their mistakes with planned or simply fucking up remains to be seen...
FW Poon (1 year ago)
because $650 - 700 Billion / year to maintain foreign military bases, to research deadlier weapons in order to stay dominant over Russians/Chinese, to procure wasteful F-22's , F-35's etc etc.... No wonder why only people working in Aerospace and Defense can make decent living.
myassessment adres (2 years ago)
Very true, you nail it. And so are many things where money is spent on, but no lives are saved.
ghetto.star.galaxi (2 years ago)
wat? 1:24:00
ghetto.star.galaxi (2 years ago)
what did she just say? 1:00:50
cherkkiable (2 years ago)
wouldn't less of consumism help?
Beej (2 years ago)
I recycle as much of my used water as I can but it's illegal to do so where I live and in many places. It's easy to say get a filter and water your lawn with your laundry water but if it's not legal people don't know about it because it's not advertised or educated about it.
String Cheese (2 years ago)
Neil is one of my favorite physics speakers ever.. but I hate it when he talks about worter! It's WAH ter dammit!!
casa JB (2 years ago)
I'm not an SJW, but...four women and one man on the panel...God Bless America (even though I'm atheist)! I'd like to see that in Saudi Arabia or Iran or other Islamic nations.
mad cobra (1 year ago)
god has nothing to do with it.humans have everything to do with it.
burnouttx (2 years ago)
Do some research on the Large Hadron Collider. 10K scientists on that including from countries who are mortal enemies.  Look up the movie "Particle Fever"....
ZeDlinG67 (2 years ago)
See science has no biases, just you know your thing, gender is irrelevant. (unless its some kind of gender study and you are a subject)
pen0rprick (2 years ago)
Anyone elsee get annoyed about being pc correct...they always say guy as a general term and then have to awkwardly say girl as well... ...this is how feminists have ruined even basic dialogue
myassessment adres (2 years ago)
If and when I stay home taking care of the food, are you going to take care of me ?
Brent Cornwall (2 years ago)
29:47 LOL Neil
Marko Mijuskovic (2 years ago)
I am always shocked by the inability of even the smartest people in United States to discuss any issue outside of the boundaries of costs and the infamous "how much is that going to cost?" question. Apparently there is a cost attached to the survival of our species and if economists figure out that the cost is too much, we will just perish I suppose. Is it possible that in this world we live in, economic laws supersede the natural laws? Really? I guess what I'm asking is where is the point at which crisis is so profound that we forget about the costs and we simply get it done? Can the crisis be so serious that we, the people of this country, can order Exxon Mobile for example, to not extract oil from the ground anymore, or simply seize their operations for the good of all of us? I think a lot of people are counting on capitalism to fix these problems. The prevailing belief here is that once the problem becomes too serious, some individual/company somewhere will make a breakthrough that will save the planet by providing environment friendly clean product, therefore eliminating the old alternatives and all that at even lower costs for the consumers. Again economic laws superseding the natural laws. Well I hope you're right, because if you're not then it is game over...
Hai Wang (10 months ago)
I get your ethos but my underlying distopian intuition is that we might just end up killing most of our population, or perhaps I can imagine that people deep down are ok with such a distopia arriving because they believe they are the smart ones who will survive in such a scenario. So your comment doesnt touch this directly but an additional intuition here might be that through collective wisdom updating perhaps we might be empathetic towards others that we began to care more and more about issues that affect all of us, and may I say the longevity of the species. But the counter ethos against this would be that people would rather play video games all day or do something to that effect than perhaps spend that brain resource on other more hard-hitting issues, and it's not so clearcut that people would want to make the switch, but I suppose a smart person who wants to maximize their time playing video games for their entire lifespan would want to not have the world go into war over water. Extrapolate this line of thinking to other issues and the same reasonings apply. Hence dont play video games now, do something useful, and then play later, or atleast that's how I imagine convincing a teenager. I'm not so sure how to convince adults to do the same thing, for they are a bit stubborn (I'm 22 so I'm more in between those two groups).
HandinMusic (1 year ago)
not singling you out of course. by back off i mean all of us. probably a good start would be to use mass transit, take fewer air and car vacations, eat a seasonal 100-mile diet. if we got 3 friends who in turn got three friends to do this, the ecology and health of all species including our own would regenerate very quickly. when we leave the fear (and do all this) we leave the power structures. when the power structures fizzle out so will the politics they support. all this will leave us regionalized and local which is fine, with our organic farms and our wonderful labour-reducing tech remaining as the natural expressions of societal health. pretty simple really.
HandinMusic (1 year ago)
i know. every single university student that has ever been has been taught (inculcated) that progress equals diligently doing more, better and different. with the huge assumption that we know what these things mean. relaxing and stepping away from the problem to serve ourselves in the best interests of our health (100 mile diet etc etc) is anathema to the engines of politics (trade and commerce) and so doing nothing or doing less in very simple terms does not get promoted. at all. see every single show, video, movie, song, piece of pop culture you care to look at. notice how each is the penultimate expression of taste and privilege. until consumerism is challenged by enough people as our de-facto religion, nothing much by way of genuine progress is likely to be realized.
Marko Mijuskovic (1 year ago)
Well then by your logic the best system humans ever created was the one that caveman lived in. Everything else is a failed attempt at utopia building including the current system which is the last iteration and therefore the worst of them all. I'm not sure if you're being cynical or serious or you're just think I'm some socialist idiot who needed to be told to fuck off. Regardless, you will have to elaborate on your position because it makes no sense...
HandinMusic (1 year ago)
+Marko Mijuskovic yes it's called "back off" otherwise known as "don't stick your nose in other peoples business" or "how can i pretend to understand anything when i hardly understand myself?". the whole desire to find a solution is called utopia-building and is the only necessary precursor to creating tomorrows problems.
Andre Gonzales (2 years ago)
Didn't know Michael Cera had a scientist sister.
Cyril T. Bes (2 years ago)
Personally disappointed about this particular Isaac Asimov mem. deb. . Definitly learnt alot about water in general ; but water as a molecule- wise, nothing was mentionned. There is so much more to know about water and the impact that Energy - vibrations, , thoughts & intentions etc has on it. Eg : Masaru Emoto
Mike Osbourne (1 year ago)
Cyril T. B
DARKHITEKT (2 years ago)
+Cyril T. Bes Agreed. I wanted to know more about water itself than how we planned to get more water.
JoarMusic (2 years ago)
Co2 is essential for all life and most life eats Co2.
Stephen InGermany (2 years ago)
"Anywhere in the united states the waters fine" except maybe in Flint Michigan
AirlessMICRO (2 years ago)
Unfortunately this debate ended up being too broad in its discussion of water. When I clicked on this video I was expecting a talk about either the presence of water in the solar system and the universe or a detailed talk about water on Earth. I expected there to be some overlap of water on Earth and in the universe, as there should be when talking about Earth, but the discussion became less focussed. I think there was some relevance to talking about conflict over water but perhaps not so much that it was necessary to have a retired general there. He may have been able to provide more detailed explanations of some of the things he was talking about if the discussion was slightly different. I don't think they should have talked retrieving water from comets and asteroids or the ARM. They were theorizing too much about exotic methods of brining more water to Earth. They did talk a little about NASA's Earth science missions like SMAP but not enough, and they also should have provided more specific examples of how they use that data. They also should have talked about NOAA's efforts more, and about desalinization and wastewater reuse.
René vH (2 years ago)
Mr. Asimov would be proud. Keep up these fine additions to the world wide web.
samus1421 (2 years ago)
Tess Russo is so damn beautiful & intelligent. super-rare. ...the conversations i would have with her: *GRRR*
sonof hendrix (2 years ago)
Please stop that woman from talking, she is doing my head in. 9 billion people are suddenly going to need access to desalination for water?? stfu has she never heard of RAIN WATER. Generating electricity uses water?? stfu has she never heard of solar power? It takes more water to make the plastic bottle than the water you get in it. Stfu, has she never heard of glass or pot??? Desalinating the Ocean water will leave behind dangerous salt?? Is she for real? sftu take the salt and sell it as table salt, there are salt mines dug for that stuff its a commodity. Wouldn't there be a device that can solve the desalinization problem? "oh no it would take far too much electricity". Stfu, theres 10,000 times more sunlight energy hitting the earth than our entire civilization's current energy needs today, and they just found a way to nano engineer graphene to absorb 90% more sunlight for pv technologies. Please just shut her up she obviously has vested interests in some global corporate monopolizing greedy corporation like Nestle or something. Honestly going from the 2016 debate about simulation to this, is like dropping 100 IQ points. Oh and then she starts advertising municipal water because it's so great. Yea thats why the water utility just a few miles from me had to put out an urgent warning on the national news, not to drink the water, use it for cooking or bathe in it, because it had massively high levels of chlorine due to a 'mistake' at the treatment plant... And then a week later news hits the internet about a report that islamic terrorists had managed to successfully hack a water treatment plant and manipulate the levels of chemicals placed in the public tap water.. And bitch, i prefer my water free of fluoride, chlorine and whatever other chemicals are added to it. I would drink from the melted ice caps if i could. But my guess is she gets funded by Nestle who actually claim to own the rights to rain water, if you can believe that. What next, will they claim they own the Ocean, so they can sell it back to you before you have the right to cheaply desalinate it with future technologies? I would not put it past them.
Dennis Wilson (2 months ago)
sonof hendrix, I have 4 letters for you; stfu!
Gewdvibes (1 year ago)
sonof hendrix why don’t you become a scientist then and solve all the worlds problems if you’re so smart instead of talking shit on a YouTube video? Because last I checked she’s actually doing something about it while you’re sitting here behind your keyboard. While some of the things you said are true, you have to think about these problems on a MASS scale. Most of your suggestions only work on a small scale, we’re not going to solve the world’s clean energy/water problem by using small scale methods and non cost/time effective methods.
Peter Jones (2 years ago)
These women are pretty amazing
Fractal Magic (2 years ago)
Most boring first five minute of a video EVER.
Johnny Watt (2 years ago)
Yoo hoo Animal Agriculture Neil! Our water is going to crops that feed animals not us . We slaughter billions of animals that need to drink water not for us. We then eat animal products that cause disease. Animal agriculture is the number one reason for climate change and loss of water for us not even touched on here. I have no hope when our scientists avoid the subject. I guess they love to eat meat dairy and eggs more than educate. Makes me sad.
FW Poon (1 year ago)
yes, for growing GM corn, GM Soy, which becomes high fructose corn syrup, vegetable oils, and animal feed.
bademoxy (2 years ago)
there always have been climate changes. the end of ice ages was global warming. there have been entire species extinctions repeatedly. our continued existence is not a given.
Shaun Holmes (2 years ago)
Why hasn't anyone brought up the most obvious of solutions?, work out what the optimal number of humans to resource ratio is and cap it, we have to stop breeding, breeding is purely an evolutionry mechanism to ensure the survival of the species, there's 7 billion of us, I think we've got breeding locked down.
Shaun Holmes (1 year ago)
+David Greene Sweet. So you acknowledge there is a limit, it's then only a matter of time before i'm right. Besides, you're talking best case scenario with a bunch of assumptions, reality is we barely know enough about climate to understand the damage we are causing (check out biosphere 2, you'll understand my point) It's a risky one if you're going to back science to 1. invent solutions on the fly and 2. have governments back the change you're talking about. I'd feel much safer if there were restrictions on people having kids. It's the one variable we are in full control of. That is until the infrastructure is there to get us closer to your 1 trillion mark.
sonof hendrix (2 years ago)
+Michael Ordoukhani (HappyLittleMonk) The planet does not need saving, it isn't going anywhere...... WE ARE! ..... Difference.
Logan Maryniak (2 years ago)
+Michael Ordoukhani (HappyLittleMonk) That's a little overboard as fuck. By a little, I mean a lot. And by overboard I mean fucking retarded.
Friedrich der Große (2 years ago)
Conquer the Moon before you leap for Mars. I said it decades ago, and I say it now. But no one will listen to reason and pragmatism. When you fuck up somewhere that far away from Earth, you can simply kiss your ass goodbye.
johnmbarto (2 years ago)
Fracking uses an absurd amount of water. Just wiki it
mark Tanner (10 months ago)
Fracking might use a lot of water, but wouldn't we be able to use non-drinkable water for that? If so, then the amount of water used probably wouldn't be important
stryker (2 years ago)
This is a serious question I've had for a long time... is it REALLY possible to "waste water"? I mean dont we have a "water cycle". I am not trying to cause an argument I actually have wondered why people are so worried about wasting water for so long... I need some education :)
johnmbarto (2 years ago)
True true.
Jether B. Strong (2 years ago)
+Yees008008 This is true; I worked at a water treatment plant for about 2 years doing start up and commissioning. Even in water treatment there is colossal wastes of water... we're talking 40 to 80 million gallons a day taken from reservoirs, treated, and then dumped straight into the river... and that's because the process had to be proven first. I think we really need to value water more as a society; it comes to us too easily
johnmbarto (2 years ago)
Agreed. And that's cool. But I live and work in the oilfields of West Texas and I see first hand the extravagantly liberal use of water here. Literally every facet of oil production, upstream and down, wastes water. This debate failed to mention that little detail. I can only imagine the same happens in middle eastern oil fields.
Angus Davies (2 years ago)
Please stand by. Like we're not.
Stein Sama (3 years ago)
Lol mr Tyson being a pimp getting all dem science bombshells.
galaxy (3 years ago)
he died too early)or born too early) cause his dream comes true. i see robot and intelligent computer is coming. he dreamed about robot for his entire life but only saw dull,stupid robot but me,not as intelligent as asimov but younger,would watch all he only dreamed.
tehone rapata (3 years ago)
Water will always be in abundance through out the world because where does water go to when it evaporates Straight back up to the clouds. The problem that we face and has always been this problem is those who hold the power of control. Through out society there has only been one group that have had control of this power and will do everything within their power to keep hold of this control. The power to rule over one another. Religion is the greatest enemy to date when refering to this method. The ordinary person needs to believe in something. It is a good thing to change the minds of our younger generation away from belief but it can become more dangerous and we need to be careful of that. War will always stay here under this control that we live under. Can you imagine how dangerous their minds would become if they don't understand belief. That's some scary shit there. Look at the kids today who are joining these dangerous cults. Some of these kids were quite intelligent. We have to change belief in order for control to be stable for everyone to live under. Culture is what is needed here. Look at how people of culture understand their beliefs. They understood their lands for centuries and had kept it in a stable condition before religion came and destroyed it. The Bush administration used the greatest speech in the United States to win their campaign. God save America. How many innocent muslims in Iraq lost their lives. You don't have to be to their exact protocols in the cultural aspects but to learn and use some of their laws to create something very similar. I don't know but someting has to be better than whats happening now.
HenryDavidT (3 years ago)
If the human population stabilized around, say, 4-5B, there would be little to no "water problem." Population pressure would be less, and the various ecosystems and natural processes would be less stressed... There would still be primitive wars, violence, diseases, etc., but nowhere near the problems that would be, if the NAKED APE's population keep rising beyond the 10B mark... If it doesn't stabilize until it reaches, say, 13-15B, in the next 80 to 150 years, then there's little human conservation and human invention (like using filtration machines to convert salty/ocean water to drinkable water, like Israel, Saudi Arabia, etc. do) that would help; such a large number of humans on earth WILL exacerbate practically every niche and ecosystem and natural processes on earth. Praying for holy intervention by Stone, Iron, and Bronze age gods and creator of the universe deities === like BILLIONS of human do all the time around the world === won't do any thing to help the species, either. The only way to stop having more and more problems, despite the many devices and inventions and innovation humans have, is to STOP REPRODUCING like instinctive creatures and PRETEND you have 2 to 10 kids is just "an act of love" and that everyone else should do the same thing. The human species, AS A SPECIES, will have to rise to a certain level beyond the family and tribal and national consciousness and move on to a SPECIES level of consciousness and understand that EVERY ACTION of EVERY INDIVIDUAL, big and small, have an impact on others and on the planet itself and CONSCIOUSLY TRY to minimize such actions. BS like "I am so rich, I am not into these little problems you stupid have" is just like a cave man coming out his cave farting loudly, saying he's so big and smart, with a club so big and all crusty with dried blood, from clubbing people and animals alike, he doesn't need any one or any thing... because he's so much bigger and stronger than all that he'd come across. THE NAKED APE needs to get beyond that kind of primitive mentality, if we are to survive into the distant future.
William Shoemaker (3 years ago)
The problem is your weak vehicle your consciousness inhabits! Need new bodies and better scaffolding for our memories! Let go of the goo you live in and make a better one! Whether you want a cyborg or energy form this organic machine we inhabit now sucks, let's do better!
"For anybody in the world that thinks climate change is a hoax or something like a couple of our people in Washington do, it's almost immoral" -Charles Wald 1:32:33
OmarWKH (3 years ago)
"13, Mr. Tyson" should be a thing.
Rahil Sethi (3 years ago)
These are really uncomfortable chairs. Very high. What happened to the previous chairs? You are on stage, you don't need such elevated chairs.
Samwise Gangi (3 years ago)
This debate is making me thirsty.
Cognitio Vitae (3 years ago)
This made me thirsty for some reason.
Shaunt1 (3 years ago)
53:00 I'm very careful with my water use.
ameagher2 (3 years ago)
Yet another constant - there will always be controversy in science ... I like it.
q3dqopb (3 years ago)
Please, make an Isaac Asimov memorial debate about conscious artificial intelligence. He wrote much about robots, so this topic is really relevant. I personally would like to suggest inviting the following panelists: Roger Penrose, Stewart Hameroff, Marwin Minsky, Raymond Kurzweil, Amit Goswami. Please, this topic is really worth a debate!
Jesus Christhole (3 years ago)
stfu about the women. cheering just because majority are women, gender is irrelevant
Kristopher Driver (3 years ago)
Respect the topic but a disappointing year for the asimov talk
Ian Fleischhacker (3 years ago)
It's a bit odd that at around 1:14 she talks about what individuals can do to conserve water use when they had, as a panel, openly admitted that it is industry and agriculture which hog our most precious resource...
Capital School (1 year ago)
I am not sure what you're trying to say. All I mean to say is industry has more control over how the resource (water) is used than the individual does.
1lightheaded (3 years ago)
+Ian Fleischhacker Well if you didn't eat or use what that industry produces you could look as if they are hogging it but they are hogging it for you
Kisven (3 years ago)
This comment section full of SJW trash. Science is a meritocracy the panel was made by the people's merits not their gender. Gender has nothing to do with knowledge or merit.
Negator (1 year ago)
Go back to your safe space if you get triggered by women, degenerate. Better yet, eat a gun and stop spreading your ideological cancer through the Internet.
TheMrVengeance (2 years ago)
+Milton Enosse - People are happy to see more women in the STEM fields and are even happier to see them get acknowledged and respected for their work by being (invited) on this panel. How does being happy about the world becoming a better and more inclusive place make you "absolute trash"?
Milton (2 years ago)
+Kisvenlucky7 Completely agree with you. Instead of viewing them as great individuals their initial reaction is to immediately pander to their shitty political ideologies. "Hi I'm Eva Silverstein and my particular focus is on formulating realistic models of field th-" Idiots: "OH MY GOD, A WOMAN SCIENTIST WOW WOW Wow, SCIENCE IS NOT ONLY FOR MEN!!! GOOD JOB U!!" Absolute trash.
TheMrVengeance (3 years ago)
+Kisvenlucky7  "Imagine if people were only allowed to post on videos where they have some form of merit."  That would be great, as we wouldn't have comments by people like you, who are just insulting people for trash and looking to argue.
Kisven (3 years ago)
+TheMrVengeance I don't think you know what a sycophant is. There is no opposition to the position of female scientist. Just retards looking for acknowledgement. The problem I have with it is that everyone is stuck in a feel good society. Its a stagnant repugnant defect of humanity to put feels before reason. That's why comment sections exist in such an open format. Imagine if people were only allowed to post on videos where they have some form of merit. Where their opinion actually had weight as apposed to this naïve ideal that everyone deserves a voice in everything. if people were placed based on their merits and talents businessmen and corpratist filth would not be making policy on law and science. The religious would be left voiceless and even seen as disgusting. Society has bred sycophants and weaklings. Emotion before reason is why all empires burn.  
Sashank Nalluri (3 years ago)
Potable Water is scarce because more potable water is used than is recycled by nature right? So the evil lies in over population and and inefficient use. Reduce the population of the world and problem solved. Even if you bring water from outer space, it might just mix in the ocean and become saline eventually. Or am I wrong?
bud irving (3 years ago)
Our fresh water has come from the sea since the beginning of time (millions of years) It evaporates from the sea then rains on the dry earth. Human use of it has nothing to do with saline, as it returns to sea eventually as fresh water. If we pump seawater, then evaporate it on dry land the salt would remain on dry land, just like the great salt lakes have done.
Mousefu-k9 (3 years ago)
turn sea water to fresh then the sea water becomes more saline basically unliveble for anything but certain extremeophiles
bud irving (3 years ago)
+Sashank Nalluri It is a silly notion of bringing water from outer space. We have plenty of water here on earth. The panel was talking foolishness. The oceans are rising the poles are melting. We need to change the seawater to freshwater and the problem is solved.
Hyper Nova (3 years ago)
Love these panel discussions!
ridewave444 (3 years ago)
Tyson is annoying sometimes.
bud irving (3 years ago)
I think the debate was way off base. The world does not need more water. The world needs to make more fresh water from sea water and place it where it is needed. It can be done by pumping sea water to desert areas, where it will evaporate and form rain clouds, filling lakes, rivers, groundwater and forming  freshwater Ice at the poles. The oceans are rising because the fresh water is leaving the dry earth. This is a normal cycle of earth. (The sea rises and covers the dry earth and then goes in the ground which changes to fresh water by filtration, some sea water evaporates to form clouds, and freshwater rain. The salt water on the poles freeze and become fresh water.) The cycle, continues by the fresh water flowing to the sea. This cycle is not obvious because it takes centuries to complete. We are at the cycle where we will have to help nature make fresh water, by pumping it to dry desert areas where it will evaporate. The poles will form ice again and the rivers and lakes will fill. It can be controlled by simply regulating the amount sea water pumped, and where it is pumped. Large deserts will become lush with plants, because of the abundance of fresh water. I will answer any question about problems that might exist.
bud irving (2 years ago)
Yea, but the water vapor does not go high into the atmosphere. It hangs around and forms clouds/humidity and then returns to earth as rain. The different gasses that do travel high up into the atmosphere, are the ones causing the green house effect that trap the heat, it is not water. Water vapor can actually trap those gasses and prevent them from rising bringing the gasses back to earth in the form of acid rain. Before you get all wet again, I will admit that acid rain is not desirable but it is better than letting the gasses rise into the high atmosphere. Some of the gasses in the rain can be used by plants, other gasses can be neutralized by us clever humans. We need more fresh water rain to solve the problem. And we need less salt water in the oceans. So converting the salt water to fresh water is the answer. We need to pump ocean water to the desert areas so evaporation will make fresh water. The earth has been going through cycles of flooding the land with salt water, as proven by fossils. However the cycles are millions of years apart. and we right now are in the dry cycle. But humans can change the cycle by pumping the salt water onto the dry land. Adding the evaporated fresh water to the dry land.
bud irving (2 years ago)
what I am suggesting would control the warming of the earth by creating humidity where it would prevent green house gasses from rising, also would cause the air currents from mixing so violently slowing down the wind speeds, of violent storms.
bud irving (2 years ago)
Cloud seeding would only make rain fall in a different area it would not create more fresh water. The world has plenty of fresh water however it is not wise to let the poles melt.
bud irving (2 years ago)
Salt water would not be pumped to areas where people live.
bud irving (2 years ago)
You don't get it there would be no dead zone, only a salt lake. Like Salt Lake City lake only farther away.
redventrue1 (3 years ago)
I wonder how much of Earth's water was produced by biological processes over the last 4 billion years?
bud irving (2 years ago)
When salt water evaporates it turns into fresh water with no salt. The most rainfall in the United States comes from evaporation of ocean water, leaving the salt in the ocean. Most rainfall in the U.S. is along the coast ,google it. Mobile Alabama being the most. If seawater were pumped to dry lakes the evaporation would make fresh water and leave the salt in the dry lake area. The evaporated fresh water would rise into the sky and create rain. Where it rains is predictable and how much it rains depends upon how much is pumped into the salt lake. These salt lakes could be created where they would do the most good, such as desserts. The rain could turn the arid desert into liveable land with vegetation.
bud irving (2 years ago)
It would have to be done by government such as NASA. Not a way to make a profit. The U.S. Geological Survey surface water branch and the Army Corps of engineers, could do it. I was at one time a employee of the USGS. and I believe this would be a project suited for them.
bud irving (2 years ago)
asooundlike, The fresh water on land is produced by evaporation of Ice, freshwater and saltwater. If it rains over the land we can use it, but if it rains over the oceans it simply is unuseable. There is a way to make evaporated saltwater fall as rain on land. And fall where it will do the most good. That has been my solution to our earth warming problems, but noone seems to believe it.
bud irving (2 years ago)
asoundlike, Sorry I misunderstood your question about biological process. I think that no one can answer that question because water was made when the earth was forming as hydrogen and oxygen combined. Probably from many sources, and it continues today.
bud irving (3 years ago)
If you are asking about fresh water, the answer is all of it.
Taxtro (3 years ago)
Wow the boy speaks about the leading role of the USA and talks down to "developing countries", while the old man from the military corrects this notion. XD
Matt Coffee (3 years ago)
now im thirsty. great discussion.
James Keil (3 years ago)
Tax the water?
1lightheaded (3 years ago)
+James Keil It is already Part of your municipal tax includes the cost of the infrastructure it took to get the water to you.
Canadians Are Morons (3 years ago)
the problem of water is fairly simple: we need more energy to desalinate water. This energy cannot come from petroleum but rather star power (NIF), solar power, wind power, geothermal power... If we can desalinate water for free without using oil, then we have plenty of water. Why make the issue more complex than it has to be. The earth may be about 70 percent ocean, so it is a no brainer that lots of salt water is available - we just need free energy from renewable sources to desalinate the water.
bud irving (3 years ago)
+1lightheaded It is true that the pumping in the beginning would be prohibitive for private enterprise. But the army corps of engineers or a separate government agency, would be able to handle it. The Surface Water Branch of The U.S. Geological Survey, of which I was an employee, could supervise the project. The entire project would cost less than one outer space launch. The U.S. moves water around now by pumping. Why not sea water? The rainfall could be predictable because the winds are created by barometric pressure. The barometric pressure is lowered or raised by humidity. The humidity created by the sea water ponds would create wind which would be predictable. Heavy moist air would move toward dry hot air. As the hot air rises, the heavy humid air moves in, creating rain in the deserts. This is not rocket science, winds are predictable. The problem as I see it is, that there is no profit that can be had by private enterprise and therefore no incentive. The dry land needs more freshwater on the surface and underground. If we are going to stop the global warming, we are going to have to put it there.
1lightheaded (3 years ago)
+bud irving Your solution does not take into account how much energy it takes to move water and when it evaporates it is carried by winds that we have no control of. It won't fall where you want it to ocean wave power is in it's infancy .and it will cost money which makes water expensive. We have had it cheap and easy so that when it cost the plebeians complain if this winter does not put a huge amount of water into the system that feeds not only California but four other inland states there is going to be a unpleasant time for all the USA .That is going to damage the economy as the food that is grown there has to be shipped in and cost a lot more .
bud irving (3 years ago)
+Z505 Software Read my solution, pump the seawater to desert areas and it will evaporate into fresh water. The pumps can be ocean wave operated. [email protected]

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