Dynamic Type allows for your app's text to increase or decrease size beased on your user's preference improving visibility, but more importantly, accessibility.
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From Apple's Human Interface Guide:
San Francisco (SF) is the system typeface in iOS. The fonts of this typeface are optimized to give your text unmatched legibility, clarity, and consistency. Download the San Francisco family of fonts here.
Emphasize important information. Use font weight, size, and color to highlight the most important information in your app.
If possible, use a single typeface. Mixing several different typefaces can make your app seem fragmented and sloppy. Consider using one typeface and just a few font variants and sizes.
Use built-in text styles whenever possible. The built-in text styles let you express content in ways that are visually distinct, while retaining optimal legibility. These styles are based on the system fonts and allow you to take advantage of key typographic features, such as Dynamic Type, which automatically adjusts tracking and leading for every font size. iOS includes the following text styles:
Make sure custom fonts are legible. Custom typefaces are supported on iOS, but are often tough to read. Unless your app has a compelling need for a custom font, such as for branding purposes or to create an immersive gaming experience, it’s usually best to stick with the system fonts. If you do use a custom font, make sure it’s easily readable, even at small sizes.
Implement accessibility features for custom fonts. System fonts automatically react to accessibility features like bold text and larger type. Apps using custom fonts should implement the same behavior by checking whether accessibility features are enabled and registering for notifications when they change. See Accessibility.
The San Francisco typeface was designed to be highly legible at both small and large sizes. Dynamic Type provides additional flexibility by letting readers choose their preferred text size. Download a dynamic type size table in Resources.
Prioritize content when responding to text-size changes. Not all content is equally important. When someone chooses a larger size, they want to make the content they care about easier to read; they don’t always want every word on the screen to be larger.
In addition to the standard dynamic type sizes, the system offers a number of even larger type sizes for users with accessibility needs.
Use the correct font variant in interface mockups. When you use San Francisco for text in standard controls like buttons and labels, iOS automatically applies the most appropriate variant based on the point size and the user’s accessibility settings. In interface mockups, use SF Pro Text for text 19 points or smaller, SF Pro Display for text 20 points or larger, and adjust the spacing between letters appropriately.